Main causes for neck pain and back pain

Cause and effect

As with most pain phenomena in the human body, numerous causes can also be assumed for pain in the region of the head, shoulder, neck and back. However, with a frequency of about 99 per cent, muscle tension, which can be seen as consequences of static deficiencies and unphysological burdon ist he cause oft he pain. Degeneration is the result of constantly recurring influences. In addition, there are typical degenerations associated with age. For both cases, degeneration does not always cause a pain problem. Despite degenerative alterations, most people remain painless. In some cases, however, pain can occur. They occur intermittently or become resistant to permanent pain (chronic pain).

Abnormalities, overloaded and tense muscles
remain the main causes of neck and back pain.

Who is affected?

The question arises: If people have the same state of degeneration, why does part of them have pain and the other does not?

  1. An important, always to be considered reason, is the individual nature and disposition of the human individual. They vary in all facets of the physical and mental constitution. Disease and physical stress have completely different effects and manifestations for every human being.
  2. External stresses in everyday life or in the workplace and resulting overloads as well as incorrect movements can also be involved in the development of pain.
  3. Often malfunctions, but also misguided functions, are generated by the human body itself. Despite their mistakes, they can ensure posture and movement, but they have a negative impact at different points. Such disturbances usually occur in early stages of human development. A time at which countless complex routines are learned to control all arbitrary and involuntary functions. Examples include standing, walking, feeling, hearing, speaking, swallowing and breathing. These abilities are based on a system that man brings to the world. Later external stimuli provide a differentiated qualitative development.


For example, the breathing is easily realized immediately after birth, since the newborn is otherwise not viable. As a result, however, the breathing can become a false respiratory pattern. Thus the nasal breathing, which is important for man, is brought about by various negative influences on oral breathing. Both lead to the necessary air supply. Breathing habitually through the mouth, the urgently needed cleaning, warming and humidification of the air does not take place. In addition, important impulses are missing, which contribute to the development of coordination of the breathing muscles and lung function.

Somatic routines

There are external disturbances and irritation, affect the proper development of functions and attitudes and compensate for this by malfunctions. The latter develop more and more into a harmful habit. We intend to define every habitualization (automation) with the term „somatic routine“. Somatic routines have a lifelong existence, whether they are correct or wrong. If they are negative, they should be treated correctly.
Persistent, incorrect functional patterns, deviating postures and movements eventually cause damage which can lead to pain if a tolerance threshold is exceeded.

Continuous compensation causes damage

Based on the above, assumptions can be summed up:

One group suffers from natural age-related degeneration. The entire organism is constantly adapting to this development (adaptation). This normal course may be interrupted by short-term overloads inflicted externally to the body (e.g., heavy lifting), but the resulting pain is temporary. Although there is a damage, pain is rare, less or not felt at all.

In the other group, there are resistant functional deviations, which are replaced by faulty “somatic routines”. By worsening the posture, widening the load strength and the ever-recurring defect irritation, the stress limit is increasingly exceeded, up to the pain area. In such cases, pain usually persists with variable intensity (chronic pain).


The following example illustrates the relationship between compensation and damage: If we want to continue after a leg injury, we can compensate this by “hobbling”. The originally learned running movement is replaced by a new movement pattern. This “somatic routine” leads to a functional changeover and causes an error in the overall system. If we were to maintain them for weeks and months, damage to joints, ligaments, muscles and damage to the correct gait pattern would occur.


Continous compensation behaviour may result in a harmful impairment.

Malfunctions and patterns must be corrected!

Long compensation movements can only be canceled if malfunctions are caused by correct movement patterns and postural patterns be replaced. The conversion can only be achieved by a special and systematic training. This is consistently carried out up to automation to the positive – somatic routine.

The relevance of the head balance

An essential factor affecting the entire body stasis is an unstable head balance. It is probably one of the main causes of pain in the neck, face, and back.The upright walk of man requires a balanced static system. Deviations from this lead to visibly strong loads of the cervical spine, lumbar spine, hip joint and knee. In fact, they burden the entire body structure. Muscles, tendons and joints adapt to the wrong posture and movement. The problem is maintained and aggravated by continuous triggering.

A further deviant development, which is always assigned to a completely different causa complex, are the tooth position problems and the dysgnathia. It is scarcely known that these can also be caused by deviating head balance and accompanying malfunctions. Positions of the teeth and the mandibular shape often change again to the negative, although a multi-year treatment took place.

Head-holding, head stabilizing, and other important functional areas have often been unconsidered in these recurrent treatment outcomes. But it is precisely the correction of such functions that enables and strengthens the permanent success of orthodontic treatment.

Pain Management

The fact that most people do not only imagine pain is a matter of principle. They often suffer from unbearable pain. Combined pain treatments (multimodal pain therapy) include interdisciplinary treatment of patients. They are aimed at the treatment of chronic pain. The use of painkillers, customized for the patient, is usually required. Physical treatments are another component of the care and in rare cases an operation can be indicated.

Neck paind and back pain

FaceFormer therapy for neck pain, facial pain, headache, back pain

The contents and variations of physical treatments are manifold. They aim at the stabilization and correction of the most varied muscle functions and movement patterns.

However, the functional segments which are responsible for the head balance, the jaw motions and the related effects on the neck, shoulder and back are not considered.

The FaceFormer therapy is aimed at all important functions, which stabilize the head posture and head balance and following the whole body statics. Included are complex muscle chain functions required for fine-tuning the coordinated system, for example, muscles following the tongue. They attach to the head and connect the head and trunk of the human body.
Only corrected muscle tensions of this system allow a correct balance. FaceFormer therapy also affects the functional circuits of the jaw movement and the jaw position as well as the tongue movement and breathing. It supports the necessary stability. Only the correct interaction of these functional groups stabilizes the whole system, converts negative patterns into positive patterns and helps to prevent the relapse into the old pain state.

The FaceFormer therapy has already become countless people with pain for fast and effective help. It should be noted that only through consistent and correct application (according to the instructions) the desired goal – free from pain – can be achieved. The training is carried out until the necessary “somatic routine” (automation, pattern formation) is achieved.
Experience has shown that the FaceFormer therapy can also be easily integrated into the treatment concepts of different medical disciplines, orthodontics, dentistry, ENT medicine, orthopedics, pediatrics, osteopathy, physiotherapy and speech therapy.

Dr. Klaus und Sabine Berndsen (Rehabilitologists)