Scientific contributions from Dr. Klaus Berndsen und Sabine Berndsen

New Ways to Treat Functional Bruxismus


Bruxismus (teeth grinding) is a pathological parafunctional activity. Conventional treatments primarily take into account the use of dental splints and psychological behavioral training. Both methods seldom attain satisfactory therapeutical results. A new method for the treatment of CMD is the Face Former Therapy® (FFT). Using Bernadine/Bernadine’s Cranio-Cervical-Myofunctional Models (CCMF), pathological disharmonies of the orofacial region should be alleviated through activation of muscle group functions and replaced by new neurophysiological behaviors.


It was tested in a pilot study whether the positive results of FFT, which were targeted in the treatment for craniomandibular and cervical dysfunction, could also be valid for Bruxismus patients.

Test Persons and Methods

Inspired by the far-reaching positive experiences with the Face Former Therapy for CMD, a pilot study was developed for the treatment of Bruxismus patients. Scientific initiators were ISST – the Center for Rehabilitation and the Department of Orthodontics at Frankfurt University. The partaking patients judged their pain and the nightly Bruxismus along with any changes using the Multi-Lickert Scale (one to five). Additionally, the personal opinion of the spouse, who could rate (proxy rating) the frequency and intensity of the nightly Bruxismus based on the Lickert Scale, was recorded. The study contained 12 patients (five women, seven men, average age of 44.3 years) with severe Bruxismus. Every patient was treated for eight weeks with the Face Former Therapy. The patients complained about pain, which occurred due to TMJ and associated mandibular musculature as well as in the cervical muscles. Three patients suffered extensively from immense tension headaches. All patients were diagnosed with TMJ noise (grinding, clicking).


Thermography shows the extent of the muscle activation with Face-Former-Training.

Thermographie vor Übungsbeginn

Before begining exercises

Thermographie nach 3 Übungen

After 3 exercises

Thermographie nach 20 Übungen

After 20 exercises


After 2 Weeks FFt, a measurable improvement was seen in six patients. Temporomandibular joint and muscle pain were significantly reduced. After an eight week treatment, 61.36 % of the test persons showed no further symptoms. Outside estimation (proxy-rated), 56.82%.


With routine Face Former Therapy, functional disturbances in the craniocerival regions through to the new neurophysiological functional behavior can be corrected. This changes leads to a reduction or alleviation of Bruxismus and associated pain. Even after two weeks, most patients were able to see some relief. After eight weeks, most patients were symptom-free. Because the new neurophysiological behavior must be habituated and a relapse of the old behavior must be prohibited, the developers recommend a treatment of more than six months.

Changes in the newly conditioned bite and the muscle tension with Face Former Training

Bisssituation vorher

Bite before


Bisssituation nachher

Bite after

Frankfurt University

K.-J. Berndsen, S. Berndsen, St. Kopp
Center for Tooth, Mouth and Jaw Medicine (Carolinian)
Outpatient Hospital for Orthodontics
Theodor-Stern-Kai 7
D-60590 Frankfurt

Studie: Neue Wege der funktionellen Bruxismus-Behandlung

Study: New Ways to Treat Functional Bruxismus